河南省地质矿产勘查开发局第一地质矿产调查院, 河南 洛阳 471023
Distribution Law and Influencing Factors of Molybdenum in Soils and Crops in Luoyang, Henan Province
No. 1 Institute of Geological and Mineral Resources Survey, Henan Geological and Mineral Exploration and Development Bureau, Luoyang 471023, China
摘要：钼是人体和农作物必需的有益元素，具有防癌抗癌作用。由于不同地区土壤中钼含量和土壤酸碱性的不同，农作物中钼含量有很大差异，同时不同农作物对钼的吸收也不相同。研究不同农作物中钼富集规律可以为健康地质发展、富钼农产品开发、功能农业发展、种植结构调整提供依据。本文以洛阳市硒资源详查区及其他农业种植区为研究区，通过采集22种大田种植的农作物及其根系土，采用电感耦合等离子体质谱法（ICP-MS）测定土壤和农作物钼含量，研究了不同农作物钼含量特征及其影响因素。结果表明：洛阳市土壤钼含量较高，是中国土壤富钼特色地区。绿豆、豇豆、黑豆、黄豆、红小豆和花生是富集钼的主要农作物，钼平均含量>9mg/kg，富集系数>500%，属于钼的超富集农作物。芝麻、豆角、谷子、小麦、玉米和油菜籽钼含量较高，钼含量均值介于0.446~2.437mg/kg，富集系数介于40%~300%，属于富钼农作物。辣椒、大蒜、红薯、秋葵的钼含量介于0.1~0.3mg/kg，富集系数介于10%~30%，属于高钼农作物。苹果、梨、葡萄、石榴、樱桃与中药材银条的钼含量 < 0.05mg/kg，富集系数 < 5%，是低钼农作物。大多数农作物钼含量与根系土钼含量呈正相关，而苹果、葡萄、石榴、樱桃等水果钼含量与根系土钼含量呈负相关。研究揭示了在碱性环境下土壤中的钼更容易被农作物吸收。区内农作物与中国其他地区相比均呈富钼特征，是开发富钼农业产业的有利地区。依据不同农作物钼含量，选择出绿豆、豇豆、黑豆、黄豆、红小豆和花生是研究区特色富钼农产品，芝麻、豆角、谷子、小麦、玉米和油菜籽是富钼农产品，辣椒、大蒜、红薯、秋葵属于高钼农作物。本成果为研究区富钼农产品开发、调整种植结构提供了科学依据。
Distribution Law and Influencing Factors of Molybdenum in Soils and Crops in Luoyang, Henan Province
Molybdenum is an essential and beneficial element for humans and crops and has an anti-cancer effect. The content of molybdenum and the pH of the soils are different in different regions, the content of molybdenum in crops varies greatly. At the same time, different crops have a different absorption ability of molybdenum. Studying the rules of molybdenum enrichment in different crops provides a basis for the development of healthy geology, the development of molybdenum-rich agricultural products, the development of functional agriculture, and the adjustment of planting structure.
To investigate Mo content in different crops and their controlling factors.
This study used the detailed survey area of selenium resources in Luoyang City and other agricultural planting areas as the research object. By collecting 22 kinds of crops and their root soils, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the molybdenum content in soils and crops, and the characteristics and influencing factors of the content of molybdenum in different crops were studied.
The content of molybdenum in the soil of Luoyang City was relatively high, which was the characteristic area of molybdenum-rich soil in China. Mung bean, cowpea, black bean, yellow bean, red bean and peanuts were the main molybdenum enrichment crops, with average >9mg/kg molybdenum content and enrichment factor >500%, which belonged to the molybdenum hyperaccumulator. Sesame, long bean, millet, wheat, corns and rapeseed had high molybdenum content, which ranged from 0.446mg/kg to 2.437mg/kg, and the enrichment coefficient ranged from 40% to 300%, which were molybdenum rich crops. The content of molybdenum in chili, garlic, sweet potatoes and okra ranged from 0.1mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg, and the enrichment factor ranged from 10% to 30%, which were high-molybdenum crops. The content of molybdenum in apple, pear, grape, pomegranate, cherry and Stachys floridana Schuttl.ex Benth was less than 0.05mg/kg, and the enrichment factor was less than 5%, which was a low-molybdenum crop. The content of molybdenum in most crops was positively correlated with that in root soils, while the content of molybdenum in apple, grape, pomegranate, and cherry was negatively correlated within the molybdenum content in the root soils.
Studies have shown that molybdenum in soils is more easily absorbed by crops under an alkaline environment. Compared with other areas in China, the crop in the area is richer in molybdenum, so it is a favorable area for the development of a molybdenum-rich agricultural industry. According to the molybdenum content of different crops, mung bean, cowpea, black bean, yellow bean, red bean and peanuts were selected as the characteristic Mo-rich agricultural products in the study area; sesame, long bean, millet, wheat, corns and rapeseed were Mo-rich agricultural products; pepper, garlic, sweet potato and okra were high Mo agricultural products. The results provide a scientific basis for the development and adjustment of the molybdenum-rich agricultural product planting structure in the study area.
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