【引用本文】 徐国栋, 葛建华, 杜谷, 等. 成都市中心城区地表沉积物中重金属分布及矿物学特征[J]. 岩矿测试, 2019, 38(4): 418-428. doi: 10.15898/j.cnki.11-2131/td.201811100120
XU Guo-dong, GE Jian-hua, DU Gu, et al. The Heavy Metal Distribution and Mineralogical Characteristics of Surface Sediments in Chengdu City[J]. Rock and Mineral Analysis, 2019, 38(4): 418-428. doi: 10.15898/j.cnki.11-2131/td.201811100120

成都市中心城区地表沉积物中重金属分布及矿物学特征

1. 

中国地质调查局成都地质调查中心, 四川 成都 610081

2. 

成都市环境工程评审中心, 四川 成都 610000

收稿日期: 2018-11-10  修回日期: 2019-03-12  接受日期: 2019-04-09

基金项目: 成都市环境工程评审中心科技项目"成都市中心城区非渗透下垫面地表沉积物污染特征研究"(20160823)

作者简介: 徐国栋, 高级工程师, 主要从事岩石矿物分析工作。E-mail:xgd1230@163.com

通信作者: 杜谷, 教授级高级工程师, 主要从事岩石矿物分析工作。E-mail:dugucgs@163.com

The Heavy Metal Distribution and Mineralogical Characteristics of Surface Sediments in Chengdu City

1. 

Chengdu Center of Geological Survey, China Geological Survey, Chengdu 610081, China

2. 

Chengdu Environment & Engineering Appraisal Center, Chengdu 610000, China

Corresponding author: DU Gu, dugucgs@163.com

Received Date: 2018-11-10
Revised Date: 2019-03-12
Accepted Date: 2019-04-09

摘要:城市地表沉积物已成为城市环境污染的重要组成部分,是城市环境中各种污染物的"源"和"汇",通过研究城市地表沉积物的物化及矿物学特征对城市环境质量的监测具有良好的指示作用。本文在成都市中心城区不同区域采集40件地表沉积物样品,利用激光粒度分析仪、扫描电镜能谱和X射线衍射等技术分析研究了地表沉积物的粒径分布特征、重金属分布特征、矿物组成特征及微区形貌特征。结果表明:地表沉积物粒径的质量和体积分布特征具有较高一致性,均以中细颗粒物为主,其中小于0.3mm的地表沉积物占总质量或体积的70%以上,小于0.125mm的地表沉积物占总质量或体积的40%左右;Cu、Pb、Zn、As、Hg、Cr、Cd、Ni等重金属随着沉积物粒径的减小而呈明显增加的趋势,主要存在于小于0.125mm粒径的沉积物中,同时在成都市中心城区各方位区域和各环路区域的分布上存在一定的差异;Si、Ca、K、Na等造岩元素在不同粒径级别沉积物中都大量存在;地表沉积物矿物组成主要是石英、长石类、方解石等,且各类矿物在不同粒径级别沉积物中所占含量大致相当,但细粒径矿物表现出胶体行为,极易吸附各种微量重金属。研究认为,城市地表沉积物的粒径分布特征和矿物组成特征是影响重金属在沉积物中分布的内在因素,而人类活动是决定地表沉积物重金属污染程度的关键因素。

关键词: 城市地表沉积物, 粒径分布, 重金属分布, 矿物组成, 形貌特征, 激光粒度分析仪, X射线衍射法

要点

(1) 查明了成都市中心城区地表沉积物粒径分布特征、重金属分布特征、矿物组成特征和微区形貌特征。

(2) 采用多种技术手段和学科思路相互验证、综合分析研究了城市地表沉积物的物化及矿物学特征。

(3) 城市地表沉积物重金属分布特征既受自身粒径分布和矿物组成特征的影响,更与城市中人类活动息息相关。

The Heavy Metal Distribution and Mineralogical Characteristics of Surface Sediments in Chengdu City

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

Urban surface sediments, the source and aggregation of various pollutants in the urban environment, have become an important part of urban environmental pollution. It is of significance in urban environment monitoring to study the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of urban surface sediments.

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the particle size distribution, heavy metals distribution mineral compositions and topographic characteristics of surface sediments in Chengdu City.

METHODS:

40 surface sediment samples were collected from different areas in Chengdu City. Physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of urban surface sediments were studied by the comprehensive analysis and mutual verification of various technical means and disciplines, such as laser particle size analyzer, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy with EDS and X-ray diffraction.

RESULTS:

There was a high consistency between the mass distribution and volume distribution of surface sediment particles, which were dominated by the medium-fine particles. Particle size less than 0.3mm accounted for more than 70% of the total weight and total volume of surface sediment particles, whereas particle size less than 0.125mm accounted for about 40%. The contents of heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Hg, Cr, Cd and Ni in surface sediments increased with the decreasing particle size of sediments, which were mainly distributed in particle with size less than 0.125mm. The distribution of heavy metals varied with direction and ring roads. The rock-forming elements such as Si, Ca, K, Na were abundant in different particle size sediments. Surface sediments mainly contained minerals such as quartz, feldspar and calcite, and they had similar content in different particle size sediments. The fine-grained minerals exhibited colloidal behavior and easily adsorbed various heavy metals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Particle size distribution and mineral composition characteristics of urban surface sediments are the internal factors affecting the distribution of heavy metals content in sediments, and human activities are the key factors controlling the degree of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments.

KEY WORDS: urban surface sediments, particle size distribution, heavy metals distribution, mineral composition, topographic characteristics, laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction

HIGHLIGHTS

(1) The particle size distribution, heavy metal distribution, mineral composition and micromorphology characteristics of surface sediments in Chengdu City were investigated.

(2) Physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of urban surface sediments were studied by the comprehensive analysis and mutual verification of various technical means and disciplines.

(3) The distribution characteristics of heavy metals in urban surface sediments were affected by their particle size distribution and mineral composition characteristics, and they were also closely related to human activities.

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成都市中心城区地表沉积物中重金属分布及矿物学特征

徐国栋, 葛建华, 杜谷, 王以尧, 金斌, 董俊