中国地质大学(北京)数理学院, 北京 100083
自然资源部生态地球化学重点实验室, 北京 100037
中国地质大学(北京)地球科学与资源学院, 北京 100083
Review on Sources of Fluorine in the Environment and Health Risk Assessment
School of Science, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
Key Laboratory of Ecogeochemistry, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100037, China
School of Earth Science and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
摘要：氟是存在于自然环境中的一种人体必需的微量元素，其在环境中的缺乏或过剩可能导致健康问题。本文综述了氟在自然界如大气、岩石、土壤、水体、植物中的来源，分析了其形态及含量受环境影响的因素如地形、雨水淋溶、土壤母质、土壤酸碱度、土壤有机质等。氟的来源广泛，目前全球超过2.6亿人受氟带来的环境问题影响，因此开展健康风险评估具有重要意义。氟的健康风险评估常用的风险评估模型有危害系数（Hazard Quotient）、危害指数（Hazard Index），概率方法也常运用于风险分析中，目前还出现应用多途径暴露评估法对氟进行评估，不确定性和灵敏度的研究对于评估模型尤为关键。本文比较了传统模型的可行性和局限性，认为确定氟富集的途径，完善复合暴露评估的模式，考虑氟摄入的生物有效性，对于氟的健康风险评估十分必要；氟的健康风险评估下一步的研究还可以趋向于使用模型对氟的风险进行预测；对于氟的来源、赋存状态、迁移途径以及含量影响因素等仍然需要深入了解，全面评估其带来的健康风险。
Review on Sources of Fluorine in the Environment and Health Risk Assessment
Fluorine is an essential trace element that exists in the natural environment, and its deficiency or excess in the environment can cause health problems.
To summarize the research progress of sources of fluorine in the environment and to assess the risk to health.
The sources of fluorine in the natural atmosphere, rocks, soils, water, and plants, were reviewed, and the factors affecting its form and content by the environment were analyzed, such as topography, rain leaching, soil parent material, soil pH, soil organic matter and geochemical behavior.
Fluorine has a wide range of sources. At present, more than 260 million people in the world have been affected by environmental problems caused by fluorine. Therefore, it is of great significance to carry out a health risk assessment. The common health risk assessment models of fluorine include Hazard Quotient and Hazard Index. Probabilistic methods are often used in risk analysis. At present, there are also applications of multi-channel exposure assessment methods to assess fluorine. The feasibility and limitations of traditional models were compared.
It is necessary to consider the uncertainty and sensitivity of the health risk assessment models, determine the fluorine enrichment pathway, improve the combined exposure assessment models, and consider the bioavailability of fluorine intake for health risk assessment of fluorine. The next step of research on health risk assessment of fluorine can use models to predict the risks of fluorine. It is still necessary to have a deep understanding of the source, occurrences, migration path and content influencing factors of fluorine to assess the health risks.
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