【引用本文】 王烨, 于亚辉, 王琳, 等. 地质样品中贵金属元素的预处理方法研究进展[J]. 岩矿测试, 2020, 39(1): 15-29. doi: 10.15898/j.cnki.11-2131/td.201905160064
WANG Ye , YU Ya-hui , WANG Lin , et al. Research Progress on Pretreatment Analysis of Precious Metal Elements in Geological Samples[J]. Rock and Mineral Analysis, 2020, 39(1): 15-29. doi: 10.15898/j.cnki.11-2131/td.201905160064

地质样品中贵金属元素的预处理方法研究进展

河南省岩石矿物测试中心 国土资源部贵金属分析与勘查技术重点实验室, 河南 郑州 450012

收稿日期: 2019-05-16  修回日期: 2019-09-12 

基金项目: 河南省财政地质科研项目(豫国土资发[2018]98号-10)

作者简介: 王烨,教授级高级工程师,从事地质实验测试研究工作。E-mail:wangyehn@163.com。。

通信作者:

Research Progress on Pretreatment Analysis of Precious Metal Elements in Geological Samples

Henan Province Rock & Mineral Testing Centre, Key Laboratory of Precious Metals Analysis and Exploration Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources, Zhengzhou 450012, China

Corresponding author: YU Ya-hui , 主要从事电感耦合等离子体质谱及贵金属分析方法研究。68523749@qq.com。

Received Date: 2019-05-16
Revised Date: 2019-09-12

摘要:本文评述了近年来地质样品中贵金属元素分析预处理技术的研究现状和应用进展,对样品分解过程中常用的火试金法、碱熔融法、酸分解法以及样品分离富集过程中的吸附法、碲共沉淀法、离子交换法、溶剂萃取法、蒸馏法、生物吸附法等手段进行了归纳总结,分析了各方法的特点与不足,展望了该技术与方法未来发展方向。分解方法中的火试金法经分析工作者不断探索及改进,已成为分解贵金属的最佳手段,但其仍存在试剂消耗量大、成本高、流程长等缺点;碱熔法虽可分解几乎所有地质样品,但其处理后的溶液存在大量钠盐,需经进一步的纯化;酸分解法主要以高压密闭和卡洛斯管的消解方式为主,但受到样品性质的制约;而不同分离富集的手段都具有较强的针对性,如:吸附法多用于Au、Pt、Pd的富集,蒸馏法仅适用于Os、Ru的分析。由于贵金属元素具有颗粒效应强、赋存形式复杂多样以及超痕量等特殊性,需要针对样品的类型特点选择相适应的预处理方法。同时,应当在现有的贵金属分解方法基础上,结合当前新的实验设备及实验条件,寻求更加高效、快捷的分解技术,严格控制流程的本底及各个环节的污染问题,实现多技术、多方法联用,满足贵金属分析的要求。

关键词: 地质样品, 贵金属元素, 火试金法, 碱熔融法, 酸分解法, 分离富集

Research Progress on Pretreatment Analysis of Precious Metal Elements in Geological Samples

KEY WORDS: geological samples, precious metals elements, fire assay, alkali fusion, acid decomposition, separation and enrichment

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地质样品中贵金属元素的预处理方法研究进展

王烨, 于亚辉, 王琳, 张明炜, 黄杰, 吴林海