【引用本文】 李瑞亮, 金正耀, 陈彪, 等. 铅同位素比值法研究辽宁东大杖子战国墓地出土铜器的矿料来源[J]. 岩矿测试, 2018, 37(6): 618-625. doi: 10.15898/j.cnki.11-2131/td.201803220027
LI Rui-liang, JIN Zheng-yao, CHEN Biao, et al. Lead Isotope Study on the Source of Copper Material for Bronze Vessels in Dongdazhangzi Warring States Period Cemetery, Liaoning Province[J]. Rock and Mineral Analysis, 2018, 37(6): 618-625. doi: 10.15898/j.cnki.11-2131/td.201803220027

铅同位素比值法研究辽宁东大杖子战国墓地出土铜器的矿料来源

1. 

安徽博物院文物科技保护中心, 安徽 合肥 230061

2. 

中国科学技术大学科技考古实验室, 安徽 合肥 230026

3. 

南京博物院文物保护研究所, 江苏 南京 210016

4. 

辽宁省文物考古研究所第二考古研究部, 辽宁 沈阳 110003

5. 

合肥市师范学院化学与化学工程学院, 安徽 合肥 230009

收稿日期: 2018-03-22  修回日期: 2018-05-24  接受日期: 2018-06-11

基金项目: 国家社会科学基金项目(15BKG008)

作者简介: 李瑞亮, 硕士, 从事科技考古与金属文物保护工作。E-mail:ablrl@qq.com

通信作者: 李娜, 副教授, 从事材料制备与表征工作。E-mail:sdjnlina@163.com

Lead Isotope Study on the Source of Copper Material for Bronze Vessels in Dongdazhangzi Warring States Period Cemetery, Liaoning Province

1. 

Cultural Conservation Center, Anhui Museum, Hefei 230061, China

2. 

Archaeometry Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China

3. 

Institute of Cultural Heritage Conservation, Nanjing Museum, Nanjing 210016, China

4. 

The Second Department of Archaeological Research, Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Arch-aeology, Shenyang 110003, China

5. 

Department of Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230009, China

Corresponding author: LI Na, sdjnlina@163.com

Received Date: 2018-03-22
Revised Date: 2018-05-24
Accepted Date: 2018-06-11

摘要:东大杖子墓地作为辽宁乃至东北亚地区等级极高的战国时期墓地,自发掘以来一直受到学术界的高度关注,前期的研究工作主要集中在墓葬以及随葬品类型学、文化性质等方面,缺乏对该墓地出土青铜器矿料来源的研究。本文采用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪、扫描电镜能谱仪和表面电离型固体质谱仪对该墓地出土的7件青铜样品进行了成分和铅同位素比值分析。成分测试结果显示7件样品中有4件为铅锡青铜,2件为锡青铜,1件未知,器物功用和合金性能基本相匹配;铅同位素示踪结果显示部分器物的铜料不大可能来自内蒙古林西大井、辽宁红透山以及山西中条山等铜矿;5件铅含量大于2%的样品铅同位素比值206Pb/204Pb、207Pb/204Pb、208Pb/204Pb变化范围分别为17.685~17.941、15.530~15.612、38.080~38.404,其铅料来自辽宁青城子铅锌矿的可能性极大。本研究有助于探索辽宁东大杖子战国墓地出土铜器的矿料来源,同时为研究战国时期辽西与辽东半岛的金属资源贸易和流通以及辽东半岛资源开发历史提供了科学的证据。

关键词: 青铜器, 合金技术, 矿料来源, 青城子铅锌矿, 电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪, 扫描电镜-能谱仪, 表面电离型固体质谱仪

要点

(1) 采用ICP-OES和SEM-EDS测定东大杖子战国墓地出土7件青铜样品的成分。

(2) 采用TIMS测定了东大杖子战国墓地出土青铜器的铅同位素比值。

(3) 东大杖子战国墓地部分青铜器的铅料来自辽宁青城子铅锌矿的可能性极大,为研究战国时期辽东半岛金属资源的开发与流通提供了科学的证据。

Lead Isotope Study on the Source of Copper Material for Bronze Vessels in Dongdazhangzi Warring States Period Cemetery, Liaoning Province

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

As a high-grade cemetery in Liaoning Province and Northeastern Asia in the Warring States Period, Dongdazhangzi cemetery has received a lot of attention since it was excavated. Previous studies mainly focus on the structure of the tombs, the typology of burial objects, and the cultural properties. The provenance studies for bronze objects are lacking.

OBJECTIVES:

To discuss the provenance of bronzes in the Dongdazhangzi cemetery.

METHODS:

ICP-OES, SEM-EDS and TIMS have been used to analyze the chemical and lead isotopic compositions of 7 bronze samples from tomb No.03JDM4.

RESULTS:

Chemical analysis revealed that there are 4 lead-tin bronzes and 2 tin bronzes out of all 7 samples, but the alloy type of the rest is yet unknown. The function of the objects is basically matched with the properties of the alloy. Lead isotope analysis indicated that the copper is unlikely to come from copper mines such as Inner Mongolia Linxi Dajing, Liaoning Hongtoushan and Shanxi Zhongtiaoshan. The lead isotope ratios of 5 samples, which contain lead exceeding 2%, range from 17.685 to 17.941 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.530 to 15.612 for 207Pb/204Pb, 38.080 to 38.404 for 208Pb/204Pb. The lead sources are likely from the Qingchengzi lead-zinc deposit in Liaoning Province.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study contributes to the provenance study of bonzes in Dongdazhangzi Warring States cemetery in Liaoning Province. At the same time, scientific evidence for the research of the trade and circulation of metal sources between Western Liaoning and Liaodong Peninsula during the Warring States Period is provided, as well as the exploitation history of the metal resources of Liaodong Peninsula.

KEY WORDS: bronze ware, alloy technology, mineral provenance, Qingchengzi lead-zinc deposit, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectrometer, Surface Ionization Solid Mass Spectrometer

HIGHLIGHTS

(1) The element compositions of 7 bronze samples from the Dongdazhangzi cemetery were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectrometry (SEM-EDS).

(2) The lead isotope ratios of the 7 bronze samples from the Dongdazhangzi cemetery were determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS).

(3) Parts of the lead resources used in bronze from the Dongdazhangzi cemetery most likely come from the Qingchengzi lead-zinc deposit in Liaoning Province. This conclusion provides scientific evidence for the research of exploitation and circulation of metal resources in the Liaodong Peninsula during the Warring States Period.

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铅同位素比值法研究辽宁东大杖子战国墓地出土铜器的矿料来源

李瑞亮, 金正耀, 陈彪, 田建花, 万欣, 李娜