【引用本文】 张塞, 于扬, 王登红, 等. 赣南离子吸附型稀土矿区土壤重金属形态分布特征及生态风险评价[J]. 岩矿测试, 2020, 39(5): 726-738. doi: 10.15898/j.cnki.11-2131/td.201911050152
ZHANG Sai , YU Yang , WANG Deng-hong , et al. Forms Distribution of Heavy Metals and Their Ecological Risk Evaluation in Soils of Ion Adsorption Type in the Rare Earth Mining Area of Southern Jiangxi, China[J]. Rock and Mineral Analysis, 2020, 39(5): 726-738. doi: 10.15898/j.cnki.11-2131/td.201911050152

赣南离子吸附型稀土矿区土壤重金属形态分布特征及生态风险评价

1. 自然资源部成矿作用与资源评价重点实验室, 中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所, 北京 100037;

2. 中国地质大学(北京)地球科学与资源学院, 北京 100084;

3. 四川省地质矿产勘查开发局地质矿产科学研究所, 四川 成都 610036;

4. 四川华地勘探股份有限公司, 四川 成都 610200

收稿日期: 2019-11-05  修回日期: 2020-02-28 

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金青年基金资助项目(41202254);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(K1209);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20160056,DD20160055,DD20190173)

作者简介: 张塞,硕士研究生,地球化学专业。E-mail:zhangsai1017@foxmail.com。。

Forms Distribution of Heavy Metals and Their Ecological Risk Evaluation in Soils of Ion Adsorption Type in the Rare Earth Mining Area of Southern Jiangxi, China

1. Key Laboratory of Metallogeny and Mineral Assessment, Institute of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China;

2. School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences(Beijing), Beijing 100084, China;

3. Scientific Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Sichuan Exploration Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chengdu 610036, China;

4. Sichuan Huadi Exploration Co., LTD, Chengdu 610200, China

Received Date: 2019-11-05
Revised Date: 2020-02-28

摘要:稀土矿的露天开采易造成土壤重金属污染等环境问题。已有研究表明赣南离子吸附型稀土矿区土壤存在以Cd、Pb为主的轻、中度重金属污染。常见环境质量评价以主要污染因子(如重金属总量)作为衡量污染程度的指标,仅能反映重金属的富集程度。为查明赣南稀土矿区土壤重金属的赋存状态、迁移能力以及生物有效性,本文在利用电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)测定土壤重金属各形态含量的基础上,采用地累积指数法、潜在生态危害指数法及RAC风险评价法对赣南稀土矿区土壤重金属的生态风险进行评价。结果表明:①研究区土壤重金属主要以残渣态存在,占总量的65.5%。②土壤样品中Cd、Pb含量平均值分别是江西省土壤背景值的1.72倍和2.14倍;流域内位于矿山下游河流沿岸农田土壤Cd的平均值、尾矿库附近农田Pb的平均值分别是土壤背景值的2.33倍和3.06倍,22.7%样品的Cd或Pb含量超过风险筛选值,其中可交换态所占比例仅次于残渣态,分别占总量的47.1%和13.5%。③地累积指数与潜在生态风险评价结果表明Cd、Pb累积程度及生态风险水平较高,Co、Ni、Cu、Zn较低;RAC风险评价结果显示Cd生态风险较高,Co、Zn、Pb生态风险中等,Cu、Ni生态风险低。④针对矿区农田土壤的三种评价方法各有侧重,其评价结果异中有同,均表明研究区土壤Cd具有较高的污染程度和迁移活性,生态风险较高。本研究结果将为识别稀土矿周边农田土壤的潜在环境风险,提出有效的防范、应急与减缓措施提供科学依据。

关键词: 离子型稀土矿, 重金属形态, 电感耦合等离子体质谱法, 地累积指数, 潜在生态风险指数, RAC风险评价法

Forms Distribution of Heavy Metals and Their Ecological Risk Evaluation in Soils of Ion Adsorption Type in the Rare Earth Mining Area of Southern Jiangxi, China

KEY WORDS: ion adsorption type rare earth ore, heavy metal form, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, geoaccumulation index, potential ecological risk index, RAC risk assessment method

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赣南离子吸附型稀土矿区土壤重金属形态分布特征及生态风险评价

张塞, 于扬, 王登红, 王伟, 张洪果, 岑况